In classical Newtonian physics, the concepts of space and time are absolute. Space is composed of three orthogonal dimensions, and time is represented as a fourth dimension, perpendicular to each of the spatial axes. Both space and time are free to be discussed independent of the other. Einstein demonstrated that space and time are, in reality, dependent and inseparable by assuming the velocity of light is constant. He accomplished this through a thought experiment, where an illumination source at the center of a moving boxcar emits a pulse of light towards the front and towards the rear of the boxcar. Observers on the train see the two pulses of light hit the front and the rear walls of the box her one hits the front. This indeed demonstrated that time, i.e. the simultaneity of two events, had to be placed in the context of space, i.e. the reference frame of the observer. In kinetic physics, we can use a Cartesian frame (x, t) to describe the motion of a particle moving along one dimension, where the horizontal axis designates position and the vertical axis designates time. To describe the motion of that particle in the other two spatial dimensions, thus completely representing the particle’s motion in time, an additional two sets of Cartesian frames (y, t) and (z, t) must be constructed. Because the three frames cannot be tied together physically, i.e. 4 mutually orthogonal axes (three spatial and 1 time) cannot be represented as a single entity, they must be bound together with an external constraint. In order to derive the Lorentz transformation between the coordinates xyzt of a system S and the coordinates x′y′z′t′ of another system S’ which is moving with velocity v relative to S, we need add the constrain x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2 in S and the constrain x′2 + y′2 + z′2 = c2t′2 in S’ for describing the wave-front of the light emitted from the common origin which two systems coincide at t = t′ = 0. In order to eliminate the need for a constraint, a three-dimensional space-time (3-D S-T) frame can be constructed in similar fashion to a polar coordinate frame. In a polar coordinate frame, the coordinates consist of a pole length r and the angle φ between the pole and the polar axis. Both the radial coordinate r and the polar axis are in terms of length. In a 3-D S-T frame, time is represented by distances, thus embedding it into space. This is accomplished by taking the units of time and multiplying them by the speed of an appropriat
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Video GamesVideo games have been around since the early 1970s.
The first commercial arcade video game,Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades.
An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space In October 1958, Physicist William Higinbotham created what is thought to be thefirst video game.
It was a very simple tennis game, similar to the classic 1970s video game Pong, and it was quite a hit at a Brookhaven National Laboratory open house. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats.
The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.
Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.
The electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others.
Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large, typically coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available.
The third generation of consoles, which were 8-bit units, emerged from 1983 to 1995.
The fourth generation of consoles, which were 16-bit models, emerged from 1987 to 1999.
The 1990s saw the resurgence and decline of arcades, the transition to 3D video games, improved handheld games, and PC gaming.
The fifth generation of consoles, which were 32 and 64-bit units, was from 1993 to 2006. During this era, mobile phone gaming emerged. During the 2000s, the sixth generation of consoles emerged (1998–2013).
During this period, online gaming and mobile games became major aspects of gaming culture. The seventh generation of consoles was from 2005 to 2012.
This era was marked by huge development budgets for some games, with some having cinematic graphics; the launch of the top-selling Wii console, in which the user could control the game actions with real-life movement of the controller; the rise of casual PC games marketed to non-gamers;
and the emergence of cloud computing in video games.
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