As is usual in these Reports it is only possible to mention a proportion, here about a quarter, of the year’s relevant references. In the process of selection all references to two active fields which overlap organic chemistry, organo-silicon and -germanium chemistry, and oxidations of organic com- pounds by inorganic species, have been eliminated. The emphasis on reactions of transition-metal complexes in this Report reflects the continued major interest in this aspect of inorganic kinetics. [Throughout this Report L stands for any ligand, as specified in the text, X stands for a halogen atom ((31, Br, I) unless otherwise stated, and AH$ and A$ represent enthalpies and entropies of activation. References to the Russian literature quote page numbers of the English translations.] Redox Reactions.-There has again been much work on inner-sphere reductions of cobalt(m) Complexes by chromium(@. cis-[Co(en),(N,),]+ and cis-[Co(NHC,),(N,),]+ react by parallel paths involving a single or a double azide bridge.l For [Co(en>,(NCS)Xln+ (X = C1, NCS, NH,, OH,) chrom- [email protected]) attack can occur at either nitrogen or sulphur to form the thiocyanate bridge., The importance of steric factors and ligand reducibility have been investigated for reduction of thirty carboxylatopenta-amminecobalt(m) complexes ; for aromatic carboxylate ligands containing anitro group there is evidence for chromium(n) attack at the nitro group.3 The rate of ring closure of [Cr( OH2),( O,C*CH,*CO,H)] ,+, containing unidentate malonate, to the chelate [Cr( OH2),( O,C*CH,*CO,)] + is much slower than the rate of reduc- tion of [Co(NH,),( 02C*CH2*C02H)]2+ by chromium(n) .4 This evidence, together with rate constants and product distribution from analogous reduc- tions of malonate half-ester c~mplexes,~ refutes the earlier postulate of chromium(@ attack at the remote oxygen atom of the malonate ligand. The transition state now suggested contains chromium bonded to oxygen atoms from both carboxyl groups of the bridging malonate. The nature of intermediates in the chromium( 11) reduction of nicotinamido- and isonicotin- amido-penta-amminecobalt(m) casts further doubt on the general applica- bility of the remote attack hypothesis.6 Reaction rates of chromium(I1) with cis- and truns-[Co(en),(OH2),]3+ and [Co(en),(OH2)(NH,)33f indicate a trans effect, though this is much less marked than for reduction by iron
KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF INORGANIC REACTIONS
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Video GamesVideo games have been around since the early 1970s.
The first commercial arcade video game,Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades.
An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space In October 1958, Physicist William Higinbotham created what is thought to be thefirst video game.
It was a very simple tennis game, similar to the classic 1970s video game Pong, and it was quite a hit at a Brookhaven National Laboratory open house. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats.
The earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U.S. Patent 2455992.
Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen.
The electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others.
Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large, typically coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available.
The third generation of consoles, which were 8-bit units, emerged from 1983 to 1995.
The fourth generation of consoles, which were 16-bit models, emerged from 1987 to 1999.
The 1990s saw the resurgence and decline of arcades, the transition to 3D video games, improved handheld games, and PC gaming.
The fifth generation of consoles, which were 32 and 64-bit units, was from 1993 to 2006. During this era, mobile phone gaming emerged. During the 2000s, the sixth generation of consoles emerged (1998–2013).
During this period, online gaming and mobile games became major aspects of gaming culture. The seventh generation of consoles was from 2005 to 2012.
This era was marked by huge development budgets for some games, with some having cinematic graphics; the launch of the top-selling Wii console, in which the user could control the game actions with real-life movement of the controller; the rise of casual PC games marketed to non-gamers;
and the emergence of cloud computing in video games.
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